Atsáli™ Biomedical Details:

Atsáli™ is comprised of herbs that influence the allergy response in clinical and laboratory studies. Nettle has inhibitory effects on cells and pathways involved in allergic rhinitis (1). One clinical study found freeze-dried nettle effective in relieving allergy symptoms with almost half of the patients finding it equally or more effective than their allergy medicine (2). Other herbs in Atsali™ have effects on histamine release in laboratory studies (3, 4), and reduce overall inflammation, with distinct action on bronchial inflammation (5,6,7,8). Cordyceps improves immune and respiratory functions (9), and elderberry has been shown in laboratory studies to have anti-microbial and anti-viral effects, specifically against the influenza virus (10,11,12,13).

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Ling Zhi (Reishi Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum) is slightly warm, enters the HT, LIV, LU, channels; tonifies Heart Qi, nourishes Heart Blood and calms the Spirit, tonifies Lung Qi, transforms Phlegm to stop cough and wheezing, tonifies Qi and nourishes Blood.

Xun Ma (Stinging Nettle Leaf, Urtica dioica) enters the LU, LIV, and KI channels; tonifies the lung and skin, purifies and tonifies Blood, Kidney and Liver Yin, transforms Phlegm, and stops bleeding.

Mu Dan Pi (Peony Tree Root Cortex, Cortex radicis moutan) is slightly cold and enters the HT, LIV, and KI channels; clears excess and deficiency Heat, cools and invigorates Blood, clears Liver Fire, drains pus and reduces swelling.

Zi Zhu Hua (Purple Coneflower, Echinacea purpurea) enters the LU and SP channels; purifies Blood, clears toxins, disperses Wind-Heat and releases the Exterior, benefits the stomach.

Xin Yi Hua (Magnolia Flower, Magnoliae lilliflorae) is slightly warm and enters the LU and ST channels; expels Wind-Cold and unblocks the nasal passages.

Jie Gu Mu (Elderflower, Sambucus nigra) enters the LU, KI and BL channels; releases the Exterior, clears Heat, dries Damp, tonifies Lung, expels Phlegm, and eliminates toxins.

Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps Mushroom, Cordyceps sinensis) is slightly warm, enters the LU and KI channels; tonifies the Kidney, strengthens Yang, augments Jing, nourishes Lung Yin, transform Phlegm, and stops bleeding.

Gui Zhi (Cinnamon Bark, Ramulus cinnamomi cassiae) is warm and enters the HT, LU, and BL channels; releases the Exterior, assists Yang, adjusts the Ying and Wei, releases the muscle layer, warms the channels and collaterals, unblocks Yang, transforms Qi, thins mucus, supplements the Heart Yang, warms the Yang Qi in the chest, warms and moves Qi and Blood, warms the middle and directs turbid Yin downward.

Jie Gu Mu (Elderberry, Sambucus nigra) enters the LU, KI and BL channels; releases the Exterior, clears heat, dries damp, tonifies Lung, expels phlegm, and promotes lactation.

 

References: 

  1. Roschek, B. Jr., Fink, R., McMichael M., Alberte R. 2009. Nettle extract (Urtica dioica) affects key receptors and enzymes associated with allergic rhinitis. Phytother Res. (7):920-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2763.
  2. Thornhill, S., Kelly, A. 2000. Natural Treatment of Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. Alternative Medicine Review. (5,5):448-454. http://archive.foundationalmedicinereview.com/publications/5/5/448.pdf.
  3. Gulledge, T., Collette N., Mackey E., Johnstone, S., Moasami Y., Todd, D., Moeser, A., Pierce, J., Cech, N., Laster, S. 2018. Mast cell degranulation and calcium influx are inhibited by an Echinacea purpurea extract and the alkylamide dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide. J Ethnopharmacol (212):166-174. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jep.2017.10.012.
  4. Shen, Y., Pang E., Xue C,. Zhao Z., Lin, J., Li, C. 2008. Inhibitions of mast cell-derived histamine release by different Flos Magnoliae species in rat peritoneal mast cells. Phytomedicine. 2008 (10):808-14. https://doi.org/0.1016/j.phymed.2008.04.012.
  5. Halpern, G. 1999. Cordyceps, China’s Healing Mushroom. New York, NY:Avery Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-0895298119.
  6. Zemmouri, H., Sekiou, O., Ammar, S., El Feki A., Bouaziz, M., Messarah, M., Boumendiel, A. 2017. Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model. Pharm Biol. (1):1561-1568. https://doi.org/ 0.1080/13880209.2017.1310905.
  7. Fu, P., Yang, C., Tsai, T., Hsieh C. 2012. Moutan cortex radicis improves lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through anti-inflammation. Phytomedicine. (13):1206-15. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.07.013. 
  8. Ho, G., Wangensteen, H., Barsett, H. 2017. Elderberry and Elderflower Extracts, Phenolic Compounds, and Metabolites and Their Effect on Complement, RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Dendritic Cells. Int J Mol Sci. (3). https://doi.org/ 10.3390/ijms18030584.
  9. Yamaguchi, N., Yoshida, J., Ren, L Chen, H., Miyazawai, Y., Fuji, Y., Huang, S., Takamura, S., Suzuki, S., Koshimura, S., Zeng, F. 1990. Augmentation of various immune reactivities of tumor-bearing hosts with an extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Biotherapy. (2):199-205. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f1a2/3f338cb07eb2b573315a9ee0da220e2a5832.pdf.
  10. Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. 2011. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press/Taylor & Frances. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92756/.
  11. Tuberoso, C., ed. 2012. Berries: Properties, Consumption and Nutrition. City. Nova Science Publishers. Hauppauge, NY. ISBN-13: 978-1614702573.
  12. Krawitz, C., Mraheil, M., Stein, M., Imiralioglu, C., Domann E., Pleschka, S., Hain, T. 2011. Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses. BMC Complement Altern. Med. (11):16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-16.
  13. Roschek, B. Jr., Fink, R., McMichael M., Alberte R. 2009. Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry. (10): 1255-61. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.06.003. 

Édafos™ Biomedical & TCM Details:

Various laboratory and clinical studies have shown effects of the herbs in Édafos™ on the stomach, liver, and digestive metabolism. Tangerine peel has medicinal properties that benefit the gastrointestinal tract, particularly for stomach pain (1, 2). Crampbark, hawthorn, cardamom, kudzu root, and skullcap have shown gastro-protective properties (3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Many of the herbs, including hawthorn, skullcap and white peony, have anti-inflammatory functions (4, 8, 9). White peony also has anti-spasmodic and pain relieving properties (9). Other herbs in Edafos™ have exhibited effects on metabolism in laboratory studies. Skullcap, hawthorn, magnolia bark extracts, atractylodes, and cinnamon regulate bloodsugar levels (8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16). One clinical review suggested that cinnamon can help those with type 2 diabetes achieve better glycemic control; with some studies reporting moderate reductions in fasting blood glucose and modest decreases in HbA1c (16). Blood lipid levels have also shown to be moderated in animal studies with hawthorn, magnolia bark, atractylodes, and skullcap  (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18).

Along with the stomach, the liver is an important organ of digestion. It processes drugs, alcohol, and other chemical and natural toxins, and is important in the regulation of blood sugar and lipids. Because the liver is the first organ that processes food and drink, it is susceptible to injury. Edafos™ contains herbs that have exhibited liver-protective effects in studies, including skullcap, white peony, kudzu root, atractylodes, and bupleurum (8, 19, 20, 21, 22).

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Chen Pi (Tangerine Peel, Citri reticulatae) is warm and enters the LU, SP and ST channels; regulates Qi, adjusts the Middle relieves the diaphragm, dries Damp, transforms Phlegm, descends Qi.

Bai Shao (White Peony Root, Paeoniae alba) is cool and enters the LIV and SP channels; nourishes the Blood, regulates the menses, astringes Yin and adjusts Ying and Wei, Calms Liver Yang, Liver Wind, softens the liver and alleviates pain.

Crampbark (Viburnum opulus) is not included in the Chinese Materia Medica; however its TCM functions are described as: tonifies Liver Blood, invigorates the Blood, and reducing spasms and abdominal pain.

Shan Zha (Hawthorn Fruit, Crataegus pinnatifida) is slightly warm and enters the LIV, SP and ST channels; reduces and guides out Food Stagnation, transforms accumulations and blood stasis, invigorates the Blood, dissipates clumps, and stops diarrhea.

Sha Ren (Black Cardamom, Villous amomum) is warm and aromatic and enters the SP and ST channels; promotes the movement of Qi, aromatically transforms Damp, strengthens the Spleen, warms the Middle and stops diarrhea, and calms the fetus.

Ge Gen (Kudzu Root, Puerariae lobatae) is cool and enters the SP and ST channels; discharges exterior conditions, releases muscles especially of the neck and back, relieves Heat, generates Fluids, raises Spleen Yang and stops diarrhea.

Hou Po (Magnolia Bark, Magnoliae officinalis) is warm and enters the LI, LU, SP, and ST channels; moves Qi in the middle and relieves food stagnation, promotes movement of Qi downward, dries damp, transforms phlegm, descends rebellious Qi, reduces phlegm and calms wheezing.

Skullcap Leaf (Scutellaria lateriflora) is cold, enters the LU, ST, GB, and LI channels, clears Heat and dries Damp, drains Fire and detoxifies cools the Blood and stops bleeding, clears Heat, calms the fetus, and calms ascending Liver Yang.

Bai Zhu (White Atractylodes Root, Atractylodes macrocephalae) is warm and enters the SP and ST channels; tonifies the Spleen and augments Qi, dries Damp and promotes water metabolism, stabilizes the Exterior, stops sweating, and calms the fetus.

Mu Xiang (Costus Root, Auclandiae lappe) is warm and enters the GB, LI, SP, ST, and SJ channels; promotes the movement of Qi and alleviates pain, regulates stagnant Qi in the intestines, strengthens the Spleen, prevents stagnation, dispels Damp-Heat, and harmonizes the Liver and Spleen.

Chai Hu (Thorowax Root, Bupleurum chinesis) is cool and enters the GB, LIV, and PC channels; relieves Shao Yang disorders, reduces fever, spreads Liver Qi, relieves stagnation, raises Yang Qi, disperses Wind-Heat and resolves phlegm.

Gan Jiang (Dried Ginger Root, Zingiberis officinalis) is hot and enters the HT, LU, SP, and ST channels; warms the Middle, expels Cold, dispels Wing-Damp in the Lower Jiao, rescues devastated Yang, expels interior Cold, warms the Lung, transforms mucus, warms the channels and stops bleeding.

Gui Zhi (Cinnamon Twig, Ramulus cinnamomi) is warm and enters the HT, LU, and BL channels; releases the Exterior, assists Yang, adjusts Ying and Wei, releases muscle layer, warms channels and collaterals to relieve pain, unblocks Yang, transforms Qi, thins mucus, assists Heart Yang and warms and facilitates Yang Qi in the chest, warms and facilitates Qi flow in the channels and collaterals and Blood through the vessels, and warms the Middle and directs turbid Yin downward.

 

References:

  1. Yu, X., Sun, S., Guo, Y., Liu, Y., Yang, D., Li, G., Lu, S. 2018. Citri Reticulata Pericarpium (Chenpi): Botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. J Ethnopharmacol.  Jun 28;220:265-282. https://doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.03.031.
  2. Wang, C., Zhu, M., Xia, W., Jiang, W., Li, Y. 2012. Meta-analysis of traditional Chinese medicine in treating functional dyspepsia of liver-stomach disharmony syndrome. J Tradit Chin Med. Dec;32(4):515-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23427381.
  3. Zayachkivska, O.S., Gzhegotsky, M.R., Terletska, O.I., Lutsyk, D.A., Yaschenko, A.M., Dzhura, O.R. Influence of Viburnum opulus proanthocyanidins on stress-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage. J Physiol Pharmacol. 57:Suppl 5:155-67.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17218766.
  4. Tadić ,V.M., Dobrić, S., Marković, G.M., Dordević, S.M., Arsić, I.A., Menković, N.R., Stević, T. 2008. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. J Agric Food Chem. Sep 10;56(17):7700-9. https://doi:10.1021/jf801668c.
  5. Jamal, A., Javed, K., Aslam, M., Jafri, M.A. 2006. Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, (elettaria cardamomum maton) fruits in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 16:103(2):149-53. https://doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.016.
  6. Zhong, Z., Yao, Z.Z. 2006. Protective effect of puerarin on stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Mar;31(6):504-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16722386.
  7. Ribeiro, A.R., do Nascimento Valenca, J.D., da Silva Santos, J. Boeing, T., da Silva L.M., de Andrade, S.R., Albuquerque-Junior, R.L., Thomazzi, S.M. 2016. The effects of baicalein on gastric mucosal ulcerations in mice: Protective pathways and anti-secretory mechanisms. Chem Biol Interact. 260:33-41. https://doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2016.10.016.
  8. Yin, H., Huang, L., Ouvang, T., Chen, L. 2018. Baicalein improves liver inflammation in diabetic db/db mice by regulating HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Int Immunopharmacol. 55:55-62. https://doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2017.12.002.
  9. Romm, A., MD. 2010. Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis MO: Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier, Inc.). ISBN: 978-0-443-07277-2.
  10. Lee, Y.H., Jin, B., Lee, S.H., Song, M., Bae, H., Min B.J. Park, J., Lee, D., Kim H. 2016. Herbal Formula HT048 Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity by Improving Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Resistance in Obese Rats. Molecules. 25;21(11). https://doi:10.3390/molecules21111424.
  11. Aierken, A., Buchholz, T., Chen, C., Zhang, X., Melzig, M.F. 2017. Hypoglycemic effect of hawthorn in type II diabetes mellitus rat model. J Sci Food Agric. 97(13):4557-4561. https://doi:10.1002/jsfa.8323.
  12. Wang, T., An, Y., Zhao, C., Han, L., Boakye-Yiadom, M., Wang, W., Zhang, Y. 2011. Regulation effects of Crataegus pinnatifida leaf on glucose and lipids metabolism. J Agric Food Chem. 11;59(9):4987-94. https://doi:10.1021/jf1049062.
  13. Sun, J., Fu, X., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Huo B., Guo, Y., Gao, X., Li, W., Hu, X. 2015. Hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of honokiol on type 2 diabetic mice. Drug Des Devel Ther. Dec 4;9:6327-42. https://doi:10.2147/DDDT.S92777.
  14. Song, M.Y., Lim, S.K., Wang, J.H., Kim, H. 2018. The Root of Atractylodes macrocephala koidzumi Prevents Obesity and Glucose Intolerance and Increases Energy Metabolism in Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 19:1. https://doi:10.3390/ijms19010278.
  15. Song, M.Y., Kang, S.Y., Oh, T.W., Kumar, R.V., Jung, H.W., Park, Y.K. 2015. The Roots of Atractylodes macrocephala koidzumi Enhanced Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C2C12 Myotubes via Mitochondrial Regulation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Epub 2015 Nov 4. https://doi:10.1155/2015/643654.
  16. Costello, R.B., Dwyer, J.T., Saldanha, L., Baily, R.L., Merkel, J., Wambogo, E. 2016. Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review. J Acad Nutr Diet. 116(11):1794-1802. https://doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.07.015.
  17. Shao, F., Gu, L., Chen, H., Liu, R., Huang, H., Ren, G. 2016. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats. Pharmacogn Mag. 12(45):64-9. https://doi:10.4103/0973-1296.176049.
  18. Seo, M.J., Choi, H.S., Jeon, H.J., Woo, M.S., Lee, B.Y. 2014. Baicalein inhibits lipid accumulation by regulating early adipogenesis and m-TOR signaling. Food Chem Toxicol.  May;67:57-64. https://doi:10.1016/j.fct.2014.02.009.
  19. Xie, T., Li, K., Gong, X., Jiang, R., Huang, W., Chen, X., Tie, H., Zhou, Q., Wu, S., Wan, J., Wang, B. 2018. Paeoniflorin protects against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via inhibiting HMGB1-TLR4 signaling pathway. Phytother Res. Jul 26. https://doi:10.1002/ptr.6161.
  20. Li, L., Yin, H., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X., Duan, C., Liu, J., Huang, C., Liu, S., Yang, S., Li, X. 2018. Protective role of puerarin on LPS/D-Gal induced acute liver injury via restoring autophagy. Am J. Transl Res. 10(3):957-965. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29636885.
  21. Jin, C., Zhang, P.J., Bao, C.Q., Gu, Y.L., Xu, B.H., Li, C.W., Li J.P., Bo, P., Liu, X.N. 2011. Protective effects of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury and its possible mechanism in rats. Am J Chin Med. 39(3):489-502. https://doi:10.1142/S0192415X11008981.
  22. Lin, L., Que, R., Shen, Y., Chen, Y., Yan, N., Li, Y. 2018. Saikosaponin-d alleviates carbon-tetrachloride induced acute hepatocellular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the HL-7702 cell line. Mol Med Rep. 17(6):7939-7946. https://doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.8849.

Fós™ Biomedical Details:

Fós™ is comprised largely of adaptogenic herbs, which studies have shown to have neuro-protective, anti-fatigue, anti-depressive, anxiety-reducing, nootropic (cognitive-enhancing), and CNS stimulating activities. A number of clinical trials demonstrate that anti-fatigue herbs in Fos™ support mental work capacity and enhanced attention, particularly with a background of stress and fatigue. One study with ginseng tested over 6000 individuals with stressful occupations, aged 19 to 72, and observed improvement in the capacity for physical and mental work in all cases (1). Other herbs in Fos™ have been shown to relieve inflammation, protect muscle tissue during exercise, and enhance recovery from injury (1, 2, 5). Studies have shown ashwagandha to decrease inflammation better than hydrocortisone (2). Fos™ also supports healthy aging. Studies have shown that adaptogens protect and increase the lifespan of cells, improve mitochondrial function, and increase the body’s resistance to the adverse effects of physical, chemical, and biological stress agents. Fos™ contains herbs known for their antioxidant, radical scavenging and immune regulating properties (3), and wolfberry specifically supports the liver, health of the eye, and healthy weight management (4).

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Ci Wu Jia (Siberian Ginseng Root, Eleutherococcus senticosus) is warm, enters the SP, HT, and KI channels; tonifies Qi of the Spleen and Stomach, warms the Kidney, augments the Heart, calms the Shen, invigorates Blood and unblocks the collaterals.

Huang Qi (Astragalus Root, Astragalus propinquus) is slightly warm, enters the LU and SP channels; tonifies Qi and Blood, strengthens Spleen, raises Yang Qi of the Spleen and Stomach, tonifies Wei Qi and the lungs, stabilizes the Exterior, promotes urination and reduces edema, promotes discharge of pus, generates flesh and expels toxins, generates body fluids, and relieves numbness and pain.

Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra Fruit, Fructus schisandrae) is warm, enters the HT, KI and LU channels and all five Zang organs; tonifies Qi, astringes Lung Qi leakage and stops coughing, tonifies Kidney and binds Essence, astringes sweat and generates fluids, quiets the Spirit, and calms and contains Heart Qi.

Hong Jing Tian (Rhodiola, Rhodiola rosea) is cold, enters the HT, KI, LIV, SP and LU channels; tonifies, clears Lung heat, nourishes Lung Yin and relieves cough, and invigorates the Blood.

Gou Qi Zi (Ningxia Wolfberry, Lycium barbarum) is warm and enters the KI and LIV channels; tonifies the Liver and Kidney, strengthens the sinews and bones, expels Wind-Damp, and warms and stabilizes the Kidney.

Nan Fei Zui Jia (Ashwaganda, Withania somnifera) enters the LU, HT and SP channels; tonifies Qi and Wei Qi, tonifies Lung Qi, Spleen, and Jing, and calms the Shen.

Da Zao (Jujube, Chinese Date, Ziziphus jujube) is warm and enters the SP and ST channel; tonifies the Spleen and Stomach, augments Qi, and nourishes Blood and calms the Spirit.

 

References:

  1. Panossian, A., Wikman, G. 2010. Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress—Protective Activity. Pharmaceuticals. Jan 3(1):188-224. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/ph3010188.
  2. Mishra, L., Singh, B.B., Daagenais, S. 2000. Scientific Basis for the Therapeutic Use of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): A Review. Alternative Medicine Review. (5, 4):334-346. http://anaturalhealingcenter.com/documents/Thorne/articles/Ashwagandha.pdf.
  3. Huang, W.M., Liang, Y.Q., Tang, L.J., Ding, Y., & Wang, X.H. 2013. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide on EA.hy926 cells. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine (6):199-203. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2013.1074.
  4. Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. 2011. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Frances. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92756/
  5. Romm, A., MD. 2010. Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis MO: Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier, Inc.). ISBN: 978-0-443-07277-2.

Kÿma™ Biomedical & TCM Details:

Kÿma™ is comprised of Chinese and western herbs traditionally known for inducing and improving the quality of sleep. Current biomedical research is now showing some clinical and laboratory support for these functions.

A systematic review of valerian research found it to have a statistically significant effect on improving sleep quality and a trend favoring a decrease in the time needed to fall asleep without a hangover effect (next-day drowsiness or grogginess). Several studies have shown that components of valerian inhibit the breakdown of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain decreasing central nervous system activity and inducing sedation in mice (1). Chamomile has also been shown to have sedative properties, increasing the quality of sleep, decreasing the amount of time needed to fall asleep, decrease in the number of nighttime awakenings, and decrease in fatigue (2, 3).  Studies have shown jujube seeds to significantly increase total sleep time (4). Schisandra extracts have exhibited sedative and hypnotic activities in mice and rats, including significantly inhibiting motor activity, prolonging sleeping time and reducing sleep latency (5). A component of gastrodia has been shown to significantly decrease motor activity and increase sleep times in mice (6).

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Xie Cao (Valerian Root, Valeriana officinalis) is warm and enters the LIV and HT channels; induces tranquilization, stops bleeding and alleviates pain.

Huang Chu Ju (Chamomile Flower, Matricaria recutita) enters the LU, HT and ST channels; moves Qi, tonifies the Liver, stops pain, strengthens stomach, releases Exterior, clears Heat, stops cough, moves Blood and calms Shen.

Suan Zao Ren (Sour Jujube Seed, Zizyphus spinosae) is neutral and enters the GB, HT, LIV, and SP channels; nourishes Heart Yin, tonifies Liver Blood, calms the spirit, astringes sweat and generates fluids.

Da Zao (Jujube, Chinese Date, Ziziphus jujube) is warm and enters the SP and ST channels; tonifies the Spleen and Stomach, augments Qi, and nourishes Blood and calms the Spirit.

Tian Ma (Gastrodia Rhizome, Gastrodia elata) is neutral and enters the LIV channel; extinguishes Wind, calms the Liver, stops spasms and tremors, subdues rising Liver Yang, alleviates pain and disperses Wind-Damp Bi.

Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra Fruit, Fructus schisandrae) is warm, enters the HT, KI and LU channels and all five Zang organs; tonifies Qi, astringes Lung Qi leakage and stops coughing, tonifies Kidney and bind Essence, astringes sweat and generates fluids, quiets the Spirit, and calms and contains Heart Qi.

 

References:

  1. Bent, S., Padula, A., Moore, D., Patterson, M., Mehling, W. 2006. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. Dec 119(12):1005-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.02.026.
  2. Abdullahzadeh, M., Matourypour, P., Naji, S.A. 2017. Investigation effect of oral chamomilla on sleep quality in elderly people in Isfahan: A randomized control trial. J Educ Health Promot. 5(6):53. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_109_15.
  3. Zick, S.M., Wright, B.D., Sen, A., Arnedt, J.T. 2011. Preliminary examination of the efficacy and safety of a standardized chamomile extract for chronic primary insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. Sep 22(11):78. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-78.
  4. Cao, J.X., Zhang, Q.Y., Cui ,S.Y., Cui, X.Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y.H., Bai, Y.J., Zhao, Y.Y. 2010. Hypnotic effect of jujubosides from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. J Ethnopharmacol. Jul 6;130(1):163-6. https://doi.org/.1016/j.jep.2010.03.023.
  5. Huang, F., Xiong, Y., Xu, L., Ma, S., Dou, C. 2007. Sedative and hypnotic activities of the ethanol fraction from Fructus Schisandrae in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol. Apr 4;110(3):471-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.008.
  6. Zhang, Y., Li, M., Kang, R.X., Shi, J.G., Liu, G.T., Zhang, J.J. 2012. NHBA isolated from Gastrodia elata exerts sedative and hypnotic effects in sodium pentobarbital-treated mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Oct;102(4):593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2012.06.002.

Neró™ Biomedical Details:

Neró™ is comprised of herbs which traditional Chinese medicine describes as “generating fluids”; however, biomedical research on hydration functions of these herbs is scant. One recent human used ophiopogon tuber as a single herb and a component of herbal formulas to treat an autoimmune disease causing dryness, Sjögren’s syndrome (1).

Research does show that many of the herbs in Nero™ have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and other beneficial properties (2, 3, 4, 5).

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Tian Men Dong (Asparagus Root, Asparagus cochinensis) is cold and enters the KI and LU channels; nourishes Kidney Yin, clears Lung Heat, sedates Fire, moistens Lungs, generates Fluids and resolves Phlegm.

Mai Men Dong (Ophiopogon Tuber, Ophiopogon japonicas) is cool and enters the HT, LU, and ST channels; moistens the Lungs, nourishes Yin, stops cough, nourishes Stomach Yin, generates Fluids, moistens Intestines, clears Heart and eliminates irritability.

Hei Zhi Ma (Black Sesame Seeds, Sesame nigrum) is neutral and enters the KI, LIV and LI channels; nourishes and fortifies Liver and Kidney Yin, nourishes Jing and Blood, extinguishes Wind, moistens and lubricates Intestines and Lung.

Shan Yao (Chinese Yam Rhizome, Dioscorea oppositae) is neutral and enters the KI, LU, and SP channels; tonifies Spleen, nourishes Stomach Yin, stops diarrhea, tonifies Lung Qi, nourishes Lung Yin, tonifies Kidney Yin and astringes Jing.

Bo He (Field Mint, Herba menthae haplocalycis) is cool and enters LU and LIV channels, disperses Wind-Heat, cools and clears the head and eyes, benefits the throat, vents rashes, relieves Liver Qi Stagnation, and expels turbid filth.

Da Zao (Jujube, Chinese Date, Ziziphus jujube) is warm and enters the SP and ST channel; tonifies the Spleen and Stomach, augments Qi, and nourishes Blood and calms the Spirit.

Fang Feng (Siler Root, Ledebouriella sesloidis) is warm and enters the BL, LIV, SP, and LU channels; releases the Exterior, expels external Wind, expels Wind-damp, alleviates pain, expels internal Wind, stops spasms, relieves diarrheas and stops bleeding.

Tian Ma (Gastrodia Rhizome, Gastrodia elata) is neutral and enters the LIV channel; extinguishes Wind, calms the Liver, stops spasms and tremors, subdues rising Liver Yang, alleviates pain and disperses Wind-Damp Bi.

Lu Gen (Reed Rhizome, Phragmites communis) is cold and enters the LU and ST channels; clears Heat and irritability from the Lungs and Stomach, generates Fluid, regulates Stomach Qi, relieves thirst, stops vomiting, clears Heat, promotes urination, vents rashes and relieves food poisoning.

 

References: 

  1. Chang, C.M., Chu. H.T., Wei, Y.H., Chen F.P., Wang, S., Wu, P.C., Yen, H.R., Chen, T.J., Chang, H.H. 2015. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren’s syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Sci. Rep. Apr 29 (5):9541. https://www.nature.com/articles/srep09541
  2. Huang, W., Wang, Y., Jiang, X., Sun, Y., Zhao, Z., Li, S. 2017. Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Ziziphus jujuba cv. Jinsixiaozao against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Mice. Molecules. Oct (20):22-32. http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/10/1781
  3. Yeon, L.D., Byung, K.C., Taesook, Y., Myeong, S.C., Hye, W.L., Lee, A.Y., Kim, H.K. 2009. Anti-inflammatory effects of Asparagus cochinchinensisextract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. J. Ethnopharm. (121,1):28-34. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874108003607?via%3Dihub
  4. Chen, J., Liu, X., Li, Z., Qi, A., Yao, P., Zhongyu, Z., Dong, T.T.X., Tsim, K.W.K. 2017. A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube): Developing Health Food Supplements for Brain Protection. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Article ID 3019568, 10 pages https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3019568/
  5. Liu, Y., Gao, J., Peng, M., Meng, H., Ma, H., Cai, P., Si, G. (2018). A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin. Frontiers in Pharmacology9, 24. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00024/full

Ríza™ Biomedical Details:

Ríza™ is largely comprised of herbs with a rich history in treating women’s health. Today, modern science is validating many of the actions traditionally ascribed to these herbs. Animal and other studies indicate that chasteberry, skullcap, valerian and angelica have hormone-regulating properties (2), which may explain benefits for PMS, menstrual and menopausal symptoms.

Many of the herbs in Riza™ have been shown to have anti-spasmodic and analgesic effects. Animal and human studies have shown that crampbark acts as an analgesic and relaxes smooth muscles, specifically those of the uterus. Peony and angelica have also been shown to have antispasmodic effects (1, 2) and angelica improves microcirculation in the uterine wall (2). Angelica and bupleurum also have anti-inflammatory properties (2, 3). Chasteberry use dates back to ancient Greek times, and has been approved by the German Commission E as an effective treatment for PMS and irregularities of the menstrual cycle (1, 2). Reports show that chasteberry helps to relieve symptoms such as breast tenderness, fluid retention, headache, constipation and depression (1).

Other herbs in Riza™ have anxiety and mood regulating properties. Animal studies show elderberry to have better effects on depression than the TCA, imipramine (4). A systematic review of elderberry’s effects concluded that, in animal studies, elderberry fruit extract sedate the nervous system producing analgesic effects (sedation and pain relief) (5.). Many clinical studies with valerian report improvement of sleep and lower anxiety as measured by the Hamilton Anxiety scale (1).

Riza™ also includes herbs that may improve symptoms of menopause, including anxiety and other mood disturbances, hot flashes, and bone loss. As stated above, many of the herbs appear to have gentle hormone regulating properties and many studies indicate effects on mood and mental state. Valerian (present in Riza at a small percentage), in particular, is renowned for its tranquilizing/sedative properties and has been used as a sleep aid for centuries. Current evidence suggests it may also be effective for night sweats. In a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trail, 8 weeks of valerian use resulted in a significant reduction in hot flash frequency and intensity (2). Laboratory studies have shown that skullcap inhibited the production of inflammatory chemicals and prevented destruction of cartilage in animals with osteoarthritis (6.). Another animal study, indicated that skullcap had a positive impact on bone mass (7). Together, these studies suggest that skullcap may be beneficial in easing symptoms of menopause-related bone loss and deterioration.

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Skullcap Leaf  (Scutellaria lateriflora) is cold, enters the LU, ST, GB, and LI channels; clears Heat and dries Damp, drains Fire and detoxifies, cools the Blood and stops bleeding, clears Heat, calms the fetus, and calms ascending Liver Yang.

Crampbark, (Viburnum opulus) is not included in the Chinese Materia Medica; however its TCM functions are described as: tonifies Liver Blood, invigorates the Blood, and reducing spasms and abdominal pain.

Dang Gui (Angelica Root, Angelicae sinensis) is warm and enters the HT, LIV and SP channels; tonifies Blood and regulates the menses, invigorates the Blood and disperses Cold, moistens the intestines and unblock bowels, reduces swelling, expels pus, generates flesh, alleviates pain, and stops cough.

Jie Gu Mu (Elderberry, Sambucus nigra) enters the LU, KI and BL channels; releases the Exterior, clears Heat, dries Damp, tonifies Lung, expels phlegm, and promotes lactation.

Man Jing Zi (Chasteberry Vitex agnus castus) is cool and enters the BL, LIV and ST channels; disperses Wind and clears Heat, dispels Wind-Heat in the LIV channel, clears and benefits the eyes, dries damp, expels wind and relieves pain.

Bai Shao (White Peony Root, Paeoniae alba) is cool and enters the LIV and SP channels; nourishes the Blood, regulates the menses, astringes Yin and adjusts Ying and Wei, Calms Liver Yang, Liver Wind, softens the liver and alleviates pain.

Bai Zhu (White Atractylodes Rhizome, Atractylodes macrocdephala) is warm and enters the SP and ST channels; tonifies the Spleen and augments Qi, dries Damp and promotes water metabolism, stabilizes the Exterior, stops sweating, and calms the fetus.

Chai Hu (Thorowax Root, Bupleurum chinesis)  is cool and enters the GB, LIV, PC and SJ channels; resolves Shao Yang disorder, reduces fever, spreads Liver Qi, relieves Stagnation, raises Yang Qi, disperses Wind-Heat, and resolves Phlegm.

Bo He (Field Mint, Herba menthae haplocalycis) is cool and enters LU and LIV channels; disperses Wind-Heat, cools and clears the head and eyes, benefits the throat, vents rashes, relieves Liver Qi Stagnation, and expels turbid filth.

Xie Cao (Valerian Root, Valeriana officinalis) is warm and enters the LIV and HT channels; induces tranquilization, stops bleeding and alleviates pain.

Chi Shao (Red Peony Root, Paeoniae rubra) is cool and enters the LIV and SP channels; invigorates Blood, dispels Blood Stasis, relieves pain, clears Heat, cools the Blood, clears Liver Fire, relieves eye pain, and reduces swelling from sores and abscesses.

 

References:

  1. Romm, A., MD. 2010. Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis MO: Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier, Inc.). ISBN: 978-0-443-07277-2.
  2. Dietz, B.M., Hajirahimkhan, A., Dunlap, T.L., Bolton, J.L. 2016. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health. Pharmacol Rev. October. 68:1026–1073. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.115.010843.
  3. Yang, F., Dong, X., Yin, X., Wang, W., You, L., Ni, J. 2017. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7597596.
  4. Mahmoudi, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Dooshan, A., Arimi, A., Ghasemi, N., Fathiazad, F. 2014. Antidepressant activities of Sambucus ebulus and Sambucus nigra. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. Nov;18(22):3350-3. https://www.europeanreview.org/article/7847.
  5. Vlachojannis, J.E., Cameron M., Chrubasik, S., 2010. A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res. Jan;24(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2729.
  6. Chen, C., Zhang, C., Cai, L., Xie H., Hu, W., Wang, T., Lu, D., Chen, H. 2017. Baicalin suppresses IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines via blocking NF-κB in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes and shows protective effect in mice osteoarthritis models. Int Immunopharmacol. Nov;52:218-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2017.09.017.
  7. Zhang, W., Zheng, L. 2018. Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis caused by oestrogen shortage in rats.Pak J Pharm Sci. Mar;31(2). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29625937.

The Zoi™ Biomedical Details:

The Zoi™ is comprised of herbs, which research has shown to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating, anti-aging, and disease prevention properties.

The herbs included in The Zoi™ are known for broad therapeutic and health-enhancing properties, and have potential to prevent disease. The Zoi™ is appropriate to use in combination with conventional medical therapies, but should be discussed with your doctor.

Most of the herbs in The Zoi™ have anti-inflammatory (1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14) and immune regulating effects (3, 4, 5, 12). Studies with gotu kola, specifically, have resulted in improvements in age-related conditions like hypertension, peripheral neuritis, insomnia, loss of appetite, constipation and age-related cognitive decline in the elderly (14).

Cordyceps, fleeceflower, wolfberry, astragalus, bupleurum, and magnolia bark have anti-tumor functions (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Cordyceps, specifically, has been used as an adjunct to conventional anti-cancer therapies in humans, supporting the immune system and body through cancer treatment. Iin animal studies, cordyceps extract has been shown to directly kill cancer cells (7,8). Bioactive components of wolfberry and magnolia bark have been reported to enhance tumor regression when used in combination with other treatments (3, 4, 9) Magnolia bark extracts have been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier to exert anti-tumor effects (6), and wolfberry and bupleurum have also exhibited potential anti-tumor functions (6, 3). Astragalus has been shown to counteract side effects of chemotherapy (5).

Antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene, lycopene and other substances) are believed to play a role in preventing diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and macular degeneration. There is good evidence that wolfberry is rich in the antioxidants, vitamin C and zeaxanthin (3). Components of other herbs in The Zoi™ also have antioxidant functions, including fleeceflower, cordyceps, magnolia bark, astragalus and gotu kola (1, 2, 9, 10, 14). In one human study, a group of elderly took 50 g/day of wolfberry fruit for 10 days and showed significant increases in the levels of blood antioxidants (48%) and hemoglobin (12%), and a 65% decrease in lipid peroxides.

Fleeceflower and wolfberry have been shown to decrease blood sugar and lipids in animal tests (1, 3); and wolfberry, magnolia bark and cordyceps seem to be beneficial to the cardiovascular system. Cordyceps, specifically, has been associated with blood cholesterol and triglyceride reduction. In one randomized trial, 95% of the patients treated with 3 g/day saw improvement in their blood sugar profiles, while the control group showed only 54% improvement with treatment by other methods (7). In another study, patients suffering from chronic heart failure were given cordyceps in combination with their conventional treatments (digoxin, hydrochlorothiaside, dopamine, and dobutamine) and reported an increase in the overall quality of life (physical condition, mental health, sexual drive, and cardiac function) compared to the control group (7). A gotu kola component was used in a human study and showed a statistically significant decrease in circulating endothelial cells, indicating positive effects on the integrity of blood vessel walls. (14). In another human study, significant impacts were noted on kidney function as measured by ankle edema, as well as positive effects on microcirculation and capillary permeability in patients (14).

Neuro-protection is an effect that may result in recovery or regeneration of the nervous system, its cells, structure and function. Wolfberry and cordyceps have exhibited some of these activities, and studies indicate wolfberry to be protective of, and regenerative to the eye (3, 9). Perhaps some of these neuroprotective functions are at the root of some of these herb’s influence on stress and anxiety. Some animal studies have shown that wolfberry protects the nervous system. Magnolia bark improves stress tolerance affecting symptoms of anxiety and depression (9, 13). Several gotu kola studies have indicated positive effects on the brain and nervous system. One double-blind, placebo-controlled human study noted anti-anxiety effects of gotu kola, and another study in elderly subjects showed significant improvements in cognition and mood with gotu kola (14).

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Ling Zhi (Reishi Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum) is slightly warm, enters the HT, LIV, LU, channels; tonifies Heart Qi, nourishes Heart Blood and calms the Spirit, tonifies Lung Qi, transforms phlegm to stop cough and wheezing, tonifies Qi and nourishes Blood.

Dong Chong Xia Cao (Cordyceps Mushroom, Cordyceps sinensis) is slightly warm, enters the LU and KI channels; tonifies the Kidney, strengthens Yang, augments Jing, nourishes Lung Yin, transform Phlegm, and stops bleeding.

Gou Qi Zi (Ningxia Wolfberry, Lycium barbarum) is warm and enters the KI and LIV channels; tonifies the Liver and Kidney, strengthens the sinews and bones, expels wind-damp, and warms and stabilizes the Kidney.

He Shou Wu (Fleeceflower Root, Polygoni multioflori) is warm and enters the LIV and KI channels; tonifies the Liver and Kidneys, nourishes the Blood and Jing, expels Wind from the skin, moistens the intestines and unblocks the bowels, and relieves Fire Toxin.

Ji Xue Cao (Gotu Kola, Centella asiatica) is cold and enters the KI, LI, LIV, SI and SP channels; clears heat and dries damp, relieves diarrhea due to Summerheat, cools the blood and stops bleeding, clears Liver heat and benefits the eyes.

Huang Qi (Astragalus Root, Astragalus propinquus) is slightly warm, enters the LU and SP channels; tonifies Qi and Blood, strengthens Spleen and raises Yang Qi of the Spleen and Stomach, tonifies Wei Qi and the lungs, stabilizes the Exterior, promotes urination and reduces edema, promotes discharge of pus, generates flesh and expels toxins, generates body fluids, and relieves numbness and pain.

Chai Hu (Thorowax Root, Bupleurum chinesis) is cool and enters the GB, LIV, and PC channels; relieves Shao Yang disorders, reduces fever, spreads Liver Qi, relieves stagnation, raises Yang Qi, disperses Wind-Heat and resolves phlegm.

Hou Po (Magnolia Bark, Magnoliae officinalis) is warm and enters the LI, LU, SP, and ST channels; moves Qi in the middle jiao and relieves food stagnation, promotes movement of Qi downward, dries damp, transforms phlegm, descends rebellious Qi, reduces phlegm and calms wheezing.

Jie Gu Mu (Elderberry, Sambucus nigra) enters the LU, KI and BL channels; releases the Exterior, clears heat, dries damp, tonifies Lung, expels phlegm, and promotes lactation.

Fu Ling (Poria Mushroom Root, Poriae cocos) enters the HT, SP, KI, and LU channels; promotes urination and leeches dampness, strengthens the Spleen, harmonizes the middle, quiets the Heart, calms the Shen and soothes the nerves.

 

References: 

  1. Bounda, G-A., Feng. Y.U. 2015. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds. Pharmocognosy Res. Jul-Sep; 7(3): 225–236. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.157957.
  2. Liu, Y., Wang, J., Wang, W., Zhang, H. Zhang, X., Han, C. 2015. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015: 575063. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/575063.
  3. Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. 2011. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Frances. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92756/.
  4. Tin, M.M.Y., Cho, C., Chan, K., James, A.E. 2007. Astragalus saponins induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft. Carcinogenesis. 28(6): 1347–1355. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgl238.
  5. Yang, F., Dong, X., Yin, X., Wang, W., You, L., Ni, J. 2017. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology. Biomed Res Int. 2017: 7597596. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7597596.
  6. Woodbury, A., Yu, S.P., Wei, L., Garcia, P. 2013. Neuro-Modulating Effects of Honokiol: A Review. Front Neurol. 2013(4):130. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2013.00130.
  7. Holliday, J. 2011. On the Trail of The Yak Ancient Cordyceps in the Modern World. https://www.earthpulse.com/cordyceps_inc/cordyceps_story.pdf.
  8. Lee, H.H., Lee, S., Lee, K., Shin, Y.S., Kang, H., Cho, H. 2015. Anti-cancer effect of Cordyceps militaris in human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells via cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis. Daru J Pharm Sci. 23(1):35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40199-015-0117-6.
  9. Eliaz, I. 2 013.Honokiol Research Review A promising extract with multiple applications. Natural Medicine Journal. 5(7). https://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2013-07/honokiol-research-review.
  10. Shahzad, M., Shabbit, A., Wojcikowski, K., Wohlmuth, H., Gobe, G.C. 2016. The Antioxidant Effects of Radix Astragali (Astragalus membranaceus and Related Species) in Protecting Tissues from Injury and Disease. Curr Drug Targets. 17(12):1331-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343107.
  11. Wu, K., Fan, J., Huang, X., Wu, X., Guo, C. 2018. Hepatoprotective effects exerted by Poria Cocos polysaccharides against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. Int J Biol Macromol. Jul 15(114):137-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.107.
  12. Tiralongo, Wl, Wee, S.S., Lea, R.A. 2016. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients. Apr. 8(4):182. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040182.
  13. Talbott, S.M., Talbott, J.A., Pugh, M. 2013. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. J Int Soc Sprots Nutr. 10:37. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-10-37.
  14. Gohil, K.,J. Jagruti, A., P., Gajjar, A.K. 2010. Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all. Indian J Pharm Sci. 72(5): 546–556. https://doi.org/ 10.4103/0250-474X.78519.

Xýlo™ Biomedical Details:

Xýlo™ is comprised of herbs that affect the nervous system and cognition, including anti-anxiety, anti-depressive, cognitive enhancing and neuro-protective functions. Some herbs are considered adaptogens and several also have anti-inflammatory effects.

Passionflower, valerian, rhodiola, gastrodia have exhibited anti-anxiety effects in various studies. One clinical trial of participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) showed that passionflower extract was as effective (and with less side effects) as oxazepam (30 mg/day) in reducing symptoms of anxiety. Other human studies examining passion flower’s effects on pre-operative anxiety reported significant benefits in comparison to placebo and pharmaceuticals (1).  Passionflower has also exhibited sedating properties in animal studies (2). Some evidence is indicating that the active ingredient in valerian (valerenic acid) interacts with the GABA-ergic system, with a mechanism of action similar to that of benzodiazepine drugs (3). Rhodiola is another herb with anti-anxiety functions. In clinical studies, rhodiola extract improved mental work capacity, attention, task performance and overall mood, while reducing stress and mild anxiety.

Gastrodia, reishi and rhodiola also have reported anti-depressant effects. In a clinical trial of gastrodia, 58 patients with post-stroke depression (PSD) were divided into two groups. Both received mirtazapine (15–30 mg/d) for 4 weeks, and one group also used gastrodia as an additional therapy. Symptoms of depression improved significantly in the group that was also given gastrodia (4). One study showed that a water-soluble extract of reishi has antidepressant-like potential in rats (5), and rhodiola has been indicated to normalize cortisol synthesis; cortisol is involved in certain chronic immune/inflammatory diseases and in some patients with depression (6).

Adaptogenic herbs help the body adapt to stress and assist in normalizing bodily processes. Rhodiola has adaptogenic properties. In a clinical study of more than 100 adults, use of rhodiola extracts resulted in significant and steady improvement in stress symptoms, fatigue, quality of life, mood, concentration, disability, and functional impairment (6).

Schisandra, skullcap, jujube, and lotus seed also have neuro-protective properties (7, 8, 9, 10). Cognitive enhancement and anti-inflammatory properties have been seen with schisandra (7) and jujube promotes memory and learning (9). Other herbs that have exhibited cognitive enhancement functions include, rhodiola, and lotus seed. Rhodiola extract improved mental performance in people with stress-related fatigue and improved symptoms of chronic fatigue symptoms (6). Gastrodia, arbor vitae seed, and other herbs in Xylo™ have anti-inflamatory effects (4, 11).

From a Traditional Chinese Medicine view:

Skullcap Leaf (Scutellaria lateriflora) is cold, enters the LU, ST, GB, and LI channels, clears Heat and dries Damp, drains Fire and detoxifies, cools the Blood and stops bleeding, clears Heat, calms the fetus, and calms ascending Liver Yang.

Xi Fan Lian (Passion flower, Passiflora incarnate) is not included in the Chinese materia medica, but has been described as cool, enters HT and LIV channels; calms the Shen, tonifies Yin.

Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra Fruit, Fructus schisandrae) is warm, enters the HT, KI and LU channels and all five Zang organs;  tonifies Qi, astringes Lung Qi leakage and stops coughing, tonifies Kidney and binds Essence, astringes sweat and generates fluids, quiets the Spirit, and calms and contains Heart Qi.

Xie Cao (Valerian Root, Valeriana officinalis) is warm and enters the LIV and HT channels, induces tranquilization, stops bleeding and alleviates pain.

Ling Zhi (Reishi Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum) is slightly warm, enters the HT, LIV, LU, channels; tonifies Heart Qi, nourishes Heart Blood and calms the Spirit, tonifies Lung Qi, transforms phlegm to stop cough and wheezing, tonifies Qi and nourishes Blood.

Bai Zi Ren (Arbor Vitae Seed Thuja orientalis) is neutral and enters the HT, KI, and LI channels; nourishes the Heart, calms the Spirit, moistens the Intestines, unblocks bowels and astringes Yin Deficiency sweat.

Long Yan Rou (Longan Fruit, Arillus longan) is warm and enters the HT and SP channels; tonifies and augments the Heart and Spleen, nourishes the Blood and calms the Spririt.

Hong Jing Tian (Rhodiola, Rhodiola rosea) is cold, enters the HT, KI, LIV, SP and LU channels; tonifies, clears Lung heat, nourishes Lung Yin and relieves cough, and invigorates the Blood.

Xiang Fu (Nut Grass Rhizome, Cyperi rotundi) is neutral, enters the LIV, SJ and GB channels; spreads and regulates Liver Qi, regulates menstruation and alleviates pain.

Lian Zi (White Lotus Seed, Nelumbinis nuciferae) is neutral enters the HT, KI, and SP channels; tonifies the Spleen, astringes diarrhea, tonifiies Kidney, astringes Jing, nourishes the heart and calms the spirit.

Tian Ma (Gastrodia Rhizome, Gastrodia elata) is neutral and enters the LIV channel; extinguishes Wind, calms the Liver, stops spasms and tremors, subdues rising Liver Yang, alleviates pain and disperses Wind-Damp Bi.

Da Zao (Jujube, Chinese Date, Ziziphus jujube) is warm and enters the SP and ST channels; tonifies the Spleen and Stomach, augments Qi, and nourishes Blood and calms the Spirit.

References:

  1. Sarris, J. 2018. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review. Phytother. Res. Mar 25. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/ptr.6055.
  2. Gazola, A.C., Costa, G.M., Zucolotto, S.M., Castellanos, L., Ramos, F.A., de Lima T.C.M. 2018. The sedative activity of flavonoids from Passifloraquadrangularis is mediated through the GABAergic pathway. Biomed. Pharmacother. Apr (100):388-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.02.002.
  3. Murphy, K., Kubin, Z.J., Shepherd J.H., Ettinger, R.H. 2010. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats. Phytomedicine. Jul (17:8-9):674-678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.020.
  4. Liu, Y., Gao, J., Peng, M., Meng, H., Ma, H., Cai, P., Si, G. (2018). A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin. Frontiers in Pharmacology9, 24. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00024.
  5. Matsuzaki H., Shimizu Y., Iwata N., Kamiuchi, S., Suzuki F., Iizuka, H., Hibino Y., Okazaki M. 2013. Antidepressant-like effects of a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. Dec 26:370. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-370.
  6. Anghelescu,I-G., Edwards, D., Seifritz, E., Kasper, S. 2018. Stress management and the role of Rhodiola rosea: a review. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. Jan 11. https://doi.org/10.1080/13651501.2017.1417442.
  7. Sowndharajan, K., Deepa, P., Kim M., Park S.J., Kim, S. 2018. An overview of neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement properties of lignans from Schisandra chinensis. Biomed Pharmacother. Jan (97):958-968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.145.
  8. Sowndharajan, K., Deepa, P., Kim M., Park S.J., Kim, S. 2017. Baicalein as a potent neuroprotective agent: A review. Biomed Pharmacother. Nov (95): 1021-1032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.08.135.
  9. Chen, J., Liu, X., Li, Z., et al. 2017. A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube): Developing Health Food Supplements for Brain Protection. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3019568.
  10. Gong, Y.S., Guo, J., Hu, K., Gao, Y.Q., Xie, B.J., Sun Z.D., Yang, E.N., Hou, F.L. 2016. Ameliorative effect of lotus seedpod proanthocyanidins on cognitive impairment and brain aging induced by D-galactose. Exp. Gerontol. Feb (74):21-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2015.11.020.
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